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Sponge Iron

Sponge iron, also called direct reduced iron (DRI), is made from directly changing iron ore (in any form whatsoever) to iron by a cutback gas or carbon, produced from natural gas or coal. It is one of the many raw materials used in sponge iron.


Characteristic Requirement
% Non-Magnetic 1.0 Max.
% Metallic Fe 81 Min.
% Total Fe 91 Min.
Metallization 88 Min.
%Phosphorous 0.07 Max.
% Sulphur 0.03 Max
% Carbon 0.1 Max.
% SiO2+ Al2O3 5 Max
Size A-grade lumps 3-20 mm (-3 mm 5% Max.)
  A-grade fines 0-6 mm (+6 mm 5% Max.)


Iron oxide ores taken out from the Earth are allowed to absorb carbon by a reduction process. In this natural reduction, as the iron ore is warmed up with carbon, it results in a surface with hole marks, hence the name “Sponge Iron”. The commercial process is a solid solution reduction, also called Direct-Reduced Iron (DRI).

It is a different route of iron making that has been started to stop some of these problems shown by conventional blast furnaces. DRI is successfully made through coal-based systems. Our Group is the market leader in the manufacture of DRI in Eastern India. In fact, we were the first player in the State to pioneer and successfully set up the first coal-based DRI plant in Raniganj, West Bengal in 1999.


Straight reduction refers to solid-state processes which lessen iron oxides to metallic iron at temperatures below the melting point of iron. Removing oxygen from the ore by a natural process produces a relatively small percentage of steel in the world. This process uses less energy and is a natural chemical reaction process. The process includes warming the normally occurring iron oxide in the presence of carbon, which produces “sponge iron.” In this process, the oxygen is taken out without melting the ore.

●    Chemical Specifications of the direct reduction of are given below: –
  1. 3Fe2O3 + CO →2Fe3O4 + CO
  2. Fe3O4+ CO → 3 FeO + CO2
  3. FeO + CO → Fe +CO2
●   With Solid Carbon in reaction
       CO2 + C → 2CO

It is the result of the direct reduction of Iron Ore in solid form by using Carbon Monoxide (CO) derived from coal at 800o-1050o c. The direct reduction process uses palletized iron or natural lump ore.

The raw materials that are required for the manufacture of DRI are mainly Iron ore and Coal. They are procured by our Group from the best mines in the country which gives us an edge to ensure better quality with high Fe metallic content. The DRI manufactured at our units is distinct due to its high metallic content (Fe 82% ) and consistent chemical and physical characteristics.

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